1 Department of Medicine, Division of Emergency Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
2 Department of Medicine, Division of Critical Care, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
3 Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
4 National Geriatrics Clinical Research Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.
5 Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton ON, Canada.
6 Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
seven Infection Prevention and Control, Sinai Health, Toronto, ON, Canada.
8 Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
9 Department of Critical Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
ten Department of Critical Care, Hospital de Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, UdelaR, Montevideo, Uruguay.
11 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
12 Department of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec, QC, Canada.
13 Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit, Trauma-Emergency-Resuscitation Medicine, CHU de Québec-Laval University Research Center, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
14 Department of Surgery, Unity Health Toronto/University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
15 Department of Critical Care Medicine, Unity Health Toronto/University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
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Drs. Sharif and Rochwerg designed the study. Drs. Greer, Skorupski and Hao collected the data. Drs. Sharif, Heels-Ansdell and Rochwerg analyzed and interpreted the data. Drs. Sharif, Greer, Johnstone, Dionne, Lau, Manzanares, Eltorki, Duan, Lauzier, Marshall, Thabane, Cook and Rochwerg contributed to the writing of the article.
Drs. Johnstone, Dionne, Lau, Duan, Lauzier, Marshall, Heels-Ansdell, Thabane, Cook, and Rochwerg disclosed that they were investigators conducting induced trials in this meta-analysis. Dr. Sharif holds an Internal Career Research Fellowship from the Department of Medicine at McMaster University. Dr. Lauzier holds a career research grant from the Fonds de Recherche du Québec-Santé. Drs. Skorupski, Johnstone, Lauzier, Heels-Ansdell, Thabane, and Cook disclosed off-label use of protoics in critical illness. Dr. Eltorki has received funding from the Hamilton Academy of Health Sciences Organization and the New Investigator Fund, Hamilton Health Sciences. Dr. Thabane has received support for researching articles from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the Canadian Frailty Network, Physicians Services Incorporation of Ontario, and the Hamilton Academy of Health Sciences Organization. Dr. Cook’s facility has received funding from CIHR, the Canadian Frailty Network, Physicians Services Incorporation of Ontario and the Hamilton Academy of Health Sciences organization; she revealed that the manufacturers of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (iHealth) donated proceeds from the blinded study for the Probiotics to Prevent Severe Pneumonia and Endotracheal Colonization Trial (PROSPECT) peer-reviewed trial included in this meta-analysis. The other authors disclosed that they had no potential conflict of interest.
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