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J Pers Med. 2022 Mar 31;12(4):549. doi: 10.3390/jpm12040549.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by wide inter- and intra-individual heterogeneity. Relapse rate, disability progression and lesion burden assessed by MRI are used to detect disease activity and response to treatment. Although it is possible to standardize these characteristics in larger groups of patients, this has so far been difficult to achieve in individual patients. Easily detectable molecular biomarkers can be powerful tools, enabling a tailored therapeutic approach for MS patients. However, only a few molecular biomarkers have been routinely used in clinical practice as validation processes, and their translation into clinical practice is time-consuming. This review describes the characteristics of an ideal MS biomarker, the challenges in establishing new biomarkers, and promising molecular biomarkers from blood or CSF samples used to monitor the effects of MS treatment in clinical practice.
PMID:35455665 | DOI:10.3390/jpm12040549